Main Page :- Articles :- European Commission of Human Rights - Cyprus v. Turkey - Commission Report, 10 July 1976


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Chapter 4 - Ill-treatment

357.        The applicant Government's complaints of ill-treatment will be considered under the following sub-headings:

-         allegations of rape; conditions of detention;

-         other forms of physical aggression of persons not in detention.

A. Allegations of rape

I. Submissions of the Parties

(1)         Applicant Government

358.        The applicant Government complained of "wholesale and repeated rapes of women of all ages from 12 to 71, sometimes to such an extent that the victims suffered haemorrhages or became mental wrecks. In some areas, enforced prostitution was practised, all women and girls of a village being collected and put into separate rooms in empty houses, where they were raped repeatedly by the Turkish troops." In certain cases "members of the same family were repeatedly raped, some of them in front of their own children. In other cases women were brutally raped in public. Rapes were on many occasions accompanied by brutalities such as violent biting of the victims to the extent of severe wounding, hitting their heads on the floor and wringing their throats almost to the point of suffocation." In some cases "attempts to rape were followed by the stabbing or killing of the victim. Victims of rape included pregnant and mentally retarded women." [518]

(2)         Respondent Government

359.        The respondent Government, who for the reasons stated above [519] did not participate in the proceedings on the merits, have not made any statement with regard to the above allegations.

II.         Relevant Article of the Convention

360.        The facts alleged raise issues under Art. 3 of the Convention, which provides:

"No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."

III.         Evidence obtained

361.        The evidence concerning allegations of rape is voluminous.

Direct evidence was obtained through the testimoney of Drs. Charalambides and Hadjikakou, who testified that they examined victims of such rapes.

362.        Dr. Charalambides stated before the Delegation:

"As a doctor they brought me a few cases that they were raped but they did not want people to know about it because they were young girls and when the raped girls asked if they could use my services as a gynaecologist - because I am a gynaecologist too, for the Kyrenia area - the Turkish administration refused. So all these cases were brought through the Red Cross to Nicosia."

He confirmed that in those cases which he examined he was medically satisfied that rape had taken place [520].

363.        Witness Dr. Hadjikakou also stated that he had to treat victims of rape and that in about 70 cases his examinations allowed the medical finding that rape had in face taken place.

364.        Dr. Hadjikakou, in his handwritten notes submitted as part of his evidence, mentioned the following incidents of rape which had been brought to his attention [521]:

-         A mentally-retarded girl aged 24 was raped in her house by 20 soldiers one after the other. When she started screaming they threw her from the second floor window. She sustained fracture dislocation of the spine and became paralysed. Dr. Hadjikakou treated her for spinal injury.

-         One day after their arrival at Voni Turks took girls to a nearby house and raped them.

-         One girl of Palekythrou who was held with others in a house was taken out at gunpoint and raped.

-         At Tanvu Turkish soldiers tried to rape a 17 year old schoolgirl. She resisted and was shot dead.

-         A woman of Gypsou mentioned to him that 25 girls were kept by Turks at Marathovouno as prostitutes.

-         Another woman saw several girls being raped.

-         A women of Voni was raped on three occasions by four persons each time. She became pregnant.

365.        he Delegation also heard evidence from eye-witnesses. Mrs. Kyprianou gave evidence that after the killing described above [522] the Turkish soldiers took a young girl and raped her [523]. This statement was corroborated by Mrs. Efthymiou [524].

One of the persons interviewed in refugee camps (Witness E) stated that he had seen the rape of three women by Turkish soldiers at Ayios Georgios. He further reported that at Marathovouno many girls were raped; he and his family had heard their cries [525].

366.        A further witness stated that his wife had been raped in front of his children [526].

367.        Reference has also been made before the Delegation to several cases of abortion, at the British base, of women who had been victims of rapes by Turkish soldiers [527].

368.        Hearsay witnesses of rapes were Mrs. Soulioti, Mr. Hadjiloizou[528] Mr. Odysseos [529], and Mr. Stylianou [530].

Mr. Stylianou spoke of a case of 25 girls who, having been raped, complained to Turkish officers and were then raped by these officers. The witness offered the name of one of the victims in this case and said that the victim was prepared to testify before the Delegation. In addition he mentioned the case of a 50 year old woman who was raped by 10 soldiers in her fields and had to be hospitalised in Kyrenia [531].

Mrs. Soulioti stated that:

-         in August 1974, while the telephone system was still working, the Red Cross Society received telephone calls from Palekythrou and Kaponti (west of Kyrenia) reporting rapes [532];

-         a man (whose name was stated) reported his wife had been stabbed in the neck whilst resisting rape and his granddaughter aged six had been stabbed and killed by Turkish soldiers attempting the rape [533];

-         a girl of 15˝ years who had been raped, was delivered to the Red Cross [534];

-         the witness had to take care of 38 women released from the Voni and Gypsou camps, all of whom had been raped, some of them in front of their husbands and their children; others had been raped repeatedly, or put in houses frequented by Turkish soldiers. The women were taken to Akrotiri hospital in the sovereign base where they were treated. Three of them were found to be pregnant [535].

369.        The Delegation also saw a filmed interview of five girls who stated that they were victims of rape.

370.        Finally, written statements of 41 alleged victims of rape [536], of four alleged eye-witnesses of rape [537], and of 24 hearsay witnesses of rape [538] have been submitted. These statements were taken by witness Hadjiloizou [539] , or other police officers under his instructions, and the names and addresses of the authors of the statements can be obtained from the applicant Government. These statements include reports of repeated rapes by one or several Turkish soldiers [540], rapes in front of close relatives [541], rapes committed by Turkish army officers [542] enforced prostitution [543], and the rape of a five months pregnant woman [544],

IV.         Evaluation of the evidence obtained

371.        The Delegation noted that the two medical witnesses, Drs. Hadjikakou and Charalambides, endeavoured to be precise and to avoid any exaggeration. Their statements were corroborated by the other witnesses, in particular Mr. Kyprianou, Mr. Efthymiou and Witness E, and by the great number of written statements submitted. The Commission is therefore satisfied that the oral evidence obtained on this item is correct.

372.        The written statements submitted have, for the reasons already stated [545], not been further investigated. However, together with the above evidence, they constitute further strong indications cf rapes committed on a large scale.

V.         Responsibility of Turkey under the Convention

373.        The evidence shows that rapes were committed by Turkish soldiers and at least in two cases even by Turkish officers, and this not only in some isolated cases of indiscipline. It has not been shown that the Turkish authorities took adequate measures to prevent this happening or that they generally took any disciplinary measures following such incidents. The Commission therefore considers that the non-prevention of the said acts is imputable to Turkey under the Convention.

VI.         Conclusion

374.        The Commission, by 12 votes against one, finds that the incidents of rape described in the above cases and regarded as established constitute "inhuman treatment" in the sense of Art. 3 of the Convention, which is imputable to Turkey.

B. Conditions of detention

I.          Physical ill-treatment

(1)         Submission of the Parties

(a)         Applicant Government

375.        The applicant Government alleged that hundreds of persons including children, women and elderly people were the victims of systematic tortures and savage and humiliating treatment during their detention by the Turkish army. They were beaten, sometimes to the extent of being incapacitated. Many of them were subjected to tortures such as whipping, breaking of their teeth, knocking their heads on the wall, beating with electrified clubs, extinction of cigarettes on their skin, jumping and stepping on their chests and hands, pouring dirty liquids on them, piercing them with bayonets etc. Many of them were ill-treated to such an extent that they became mental and physical wrecks [546].

376.        Among the persons so treated were those deported to Turkey and kept as prisoners there. Most of them were civilians of all ages from 16 to 70. During their transportation and detention these persons were savagely ill-treated. They were wounded, beaten, kicked, whipped, blindfolded, handfettered, punched to the extent of bleeding, etc. [547].

377.        The brutalities complained of reached their climax after the cease-fire agreements and the relevant resolutions of the U.N. Security Council. In fact most of the acts described were committed at a time when Turkish armed forces were not engaged in any war activities. More than 1,000 statements obtained from alleged victims or witnesses described the ill-treatments. They show a pattern of behaviour of the Turkish forces which proves that the atrocities were part of the tactics which the invading forces were to follow. Their object was to destroy and eradicate the Greek population of the Turkish occupied areas, to move therein Turks and thus create a Turkish populated area [548].

378.        Some elderly people, women and children who hid out of fear to avoid expulsion from their homes were rounded up by the Turkish army and placed in concentration camps, the main ones being in Voni, Marathovouno, Vitsada and Gypsou, where the inhumanity of the treatment accorded to them defied the imagination [549].

(b)         Respondent Government

379.        The respondent Government, who for the reasons indicated above [550] did not participate in the proceedings on the merits, have not, apart from the statement mentioned above [551], mode any submissions with regard to the above allegations.

(2)         Relevant Article of the Convention

380.        The applicant Government's allegations raise issues under Art. 3 of the Convention.

(3)         Evidence obtained

381.        The main witness who was heard by the Delegation with regard to the allegations of ill-treatment in detention is Mr. Pirkettis, a 37-year-old school teacher [552], who had been deported to Adana.

He stated that he and his fellow detainees were repeatedly beaten after their arrest, on their way to Adana, in the Adana prison and later in the camp at Amasya to where he was transferred.

382.        Relevant passages of his statements were as follows:

-         with regard to the period after his arrest in Cyprus:

"they blindfolded us again, they put us in some buses, they began beating us - it was the first time we were beaten very bad on the heads with guns, with the barrel of the gun, or with the other side of the gun, with their fists and kicking us, and there is something else: they took our shoes from us at that time and made us walk through the fields which were full of thorns, thistles ... We were ... being beaten all the time" [553].

-         with regard to the transport on the ship to Turkey:

"Then we were taken to the ship, that was another moment of terrible beating again ... We were tied all the time ... I lost the sense of touch. I could not feel anything for about two or three months ... Every time we asked for water or spoke we were being beaten " [554].

-         with regard to the arrival at Adana:

"... then one by one they led us to prisons, through a long corridor ... Going through that corridor was another terrible experience. There were about 100 soldiers from both sides, with sticks, clubs and with their fists beating every one of us, while going to the other end of the corridor. I was beaten at least 50 times, until I reached the other end, and kicked" [555].

-         with regard to detention at Adana:

"... anybody who said he would like to see the doctor, he was beaten ... Beating was on the agenda every day. I would not say it was organised beating but it was always there especially by soldiers, sometimes some officers [556]. There were one or two very good, very nice people, but they were afraid to show their kindness as they told us" [557]

-         with regard to his transfer to Amasia:

"We were loaded again in trucks and taken to the railway station. There were many soldiers there, many policemen, and too many people, and they began spitting on us, cursing, and when we were obliged to pass before them they kicked us, they kept beating us and so on ..." [558]

-         with regard to the detention at Amasia:

"... we were all the time ill-treated again". [559]

383.        The witness also stated that:

-         co-detainees, whose names he indicated, had been ill-treated. For example, at Amasia, a man of 27 was kicked in the mouth and lost several teeth and his lower jaw came off in pieces. Another man was hit on his chest with an iron lock by a Turkish soldier and his whole chest became black and he was aching for a week [560]

-         a Turkish officer who was, according to another Turkish soldier, a karate student did his exercises by hitting every prisoner;

-         another prisoner told him that on two or three occasions two or three prisoners were hung by the feet over the hole of a water closet for hours [561];

-         a man, whose name was indicated by the witness had shown him his back injured by a second lieutenant who used to prick all prisoners with a pin whenever he found a chance when the prisoners were taken into the yard [562].

384.        Mr. Pirkettis evidence was to a great extent corroborated by Dr. Hadjikakou who stated that those deported persons who came back from Adana were all in an emaciated condition and on nine occasions he found signs of wounds [563]. Dr. Hadjikakou further reported of cases of ill-treatment in camps in Cyprus and added that he could produce his records because the victims whom he had examined had authorised him to use these records [564]. He gave the following general description of conditions in detention at Pavlides garage, Serai prison and Adana as reported to him by former detainees [565]:

"They were kept there for several days, some for months, without blankets and were being kept awake all night by purposeful noise-making. Their food at the beginning and for several weeks consisted of one-eighth of a loaf of bread daily with some olives occasionally. There were two buckets of water and two mugs which were never cleaned, from which about 1,000 people had to drink. The toilets were filthy with faeces rising over the basins, and floors were covered with faeces and urine. The latest stories were of people tied up blindfolded taken to Kyrenia to be shipped to Turkey, but for some unknown reason brought back the following day. They were not untied all this time and they all urinated and defecated on themselves. When they were eventually untied they had no water to wash their faces of their clothes and they had to wipe them on the walls and the floor. Those that were sent to Turkey were placed in the hull of a Turkish ship without being untied. Some shiploads were untied, but some were taken tied all the way. They were asking for water and they gave them cupfuls of sea-water. On arrival at the prisons in Turkey they were made to walk and run through the corridor, run the lines by Turkish soldiers to beat them, sometimes with whips, sometimes with the butts of their guns. They were then taken to the yard where some had their shoes taken off them, their pockets and their money. In the prison at Adana they were kept 76 in a cell. They were kept in their cell for 10 days     others for two or three weeks before they were eventually allowed to go into the yard. They were issued with three towels for 76 prisoners and one block of soap per eight persons per month to wash themselves and their clothes. There is a fully corroborated story of a prison doctor at Adana who used to beat up all the prisoners that reported to him. One night they took him a patient with retention of urine and he kicked him downstairs."

385.        As regards individual cases, Dr. Hadjikakou, inter alia, described the fate of two civilians. One had to amputate his toes with a blade in consequence of ill-treatment. This man was caught in Achna when he went to his village to collect some things from his house. He and another man caught at the same place were beaten up with hard objects. When he asked for water he was given a glass full of urine. His toes were then stepped on until they became blue, swollen and subsequently gangrenous. The smell was so bad that he had to cut the toes with a razor blade. The other man underwent the same treatment and when he was taken to Kanellos Hospital in Nicosia he agreed to have his legs amputated, but did not survive the operation [566]. Further details are given in the handwritten notes which Dr. Hadjikakou submitted as part of his evidence [567].

386.        Mrs. Soulioti gave the following description of the conditions in the detention centres as reported to her [568]:

"The people who were put in these churches, schools or houses all together were guarded by soldiers; they were not allowed to leave even the premises in which they actually happened to be put. They were kept in terribly overcrowded conditions. In fact, described as lying one on top of the other. They had no mattresses or even blankets to lie on. There were no sanitary facilities, especially as the water had been cut off and they had to drink water from the wells which were sometimes polluted. Old people wore crowded in with young children including babies. In an ordinary size room, for instance, there were about - according to one statement - seventy-six women, children and babies according to another, a hundred and fifty in one of the rooms in the school. The food they had, particularly at the beginning, was all that remained in the houses where they happened to be. According to the statements, the men were beaten up regularly for no apparent reason, most of them were old men."

As regards Greek-Cypriots who were detained in Turkey Mrs. Soulioti stated that she was present when the prisoners were released. "They came in a very bad state, with the clothes falling off them, they had not had a bath since they had been taken, and some of them were limping and said that they had been badly beaten." [569].

387.        Mr. Stylianou described the reported treatment of enclaved Greek Cypriots as follows [570]:

"After the second Turkish attack in August 1974 we had about 15,000 Greek Cypriots enclaved in the Turkish-occupied areas. The conditions under which they lived were in several cases and in several areas tragic, owing to the fact that in several areas hundreds of enclaved were beaten and dozens were executed, many of them were ill-treated; Greeks were also ill-treated. They have cut off their ears in some cases like the case of Palekythro and Trahoni ..."

Mr. Odysseos, referring to statements in his possession, described the conditions of Greek Cypriots enclaved in the Morphou School Building:

"All these people were taken in, about 600 of them and they were, let us say, accommodated in a few rooms, about six in one room, nine in another room, 15 in another room; in this small house there were about 60 people. No blankets at the beginning; they had to sleep either on the pupils' desks or on the cement; no food at all. They were not allowed to take even a single thing of their belongings. They were under confinement and Turkish soldiers were guarding all along, day and night; no light during night time. If they wanted to go to the toilet, which was about 50 yards away from the building, they had to ask permission; they were accompanied but definitely not during night time; they were never allowed out during night time. We had it from statements, and especially from this woman (name stated), who by that time had fits every now and then, and diarrhea; she was forced to stay in the same room where people were living to ease herself."

"There was no washing at all. They could not have a bath, wash themselves, and this (name stated) who stayed there about two months in this school building, in her statement to me says she was with the same clothing all along for the whole period of two months. If I can describe the condition myself I would say what I saw people whom I knew very well - they were neighbours well known to me - they were wrecks, psychologically they were wrecks." [571]

388.        Five refugees (witnesses B, C, D, H and K), who were interviewed by Delegates in refugee camps, stated that they were either victims or eye-witnesses of beatings in detention centres [572].

389.        Several written statements describe beatings of detainees at Voni [573], Palekythro [574], Marathovouno [575], Vitsada [576]. There is also one statement according to which no ill-treatment took place at Voni [577]. On 13 May 1975 the applicant Government submitted a further seven statements described as being by one civilian and six soldiers taken as prisoners to Turkey, who complain  of physical ill-treatment and inadequate food supply.

(4)         Evaluation of the evidence obtained

390.        The Commission, considering the personal reliability of the witnesses heard, and the fact that their statements to some extent corroborate each other, finds these statements consistent and credible. It especially accepted after careful examination the evidence given by Mr. Pirkettis, whom it considers honest and sincere.

391.        It is true that among the written statements submitted by the applicant Government there is one according to which the conditions of detention at Adana were at one time rather satisfactory [578]. However, Mr. Pirkettis stated that there were rooms in the prison which he never saw and which were probably supervised by other officers [579]. This would explain the divergence between his testimony and the written statement in question. Mr. Pirkettis himself also mentioned that among the prison personnel some behaved in a friendly manner and disapproved of the ill-treatment of prisoners. It is therefore not in contradiction to his testimony if persons who were held prisoner at other places in Adana report to have been - at least after their arrival - correctly treated. Moreover, Mr. Pirkettis' descriptions of the beating in the corridor on arrival at Adana is fully confirmed by the statement in question [580], and the Commission further notes that in the written statements submitted the living conditions of Greek Cypriot detainees in Turkey were generally described as horrible [581] or the description was similar to that given by Mr. Pirkettis [582].

392.        The written statements submitted have, for the reasons already stated [583], not been further investigated. However, together with the above evidence, they constitute further strong indications of physical ill-treatment of prisoners.

(5)         Responsibility of Turkey under the  Convention

393.        The evidence obtained establishes that, in a considerable number of cases, prisoners were severely beaten or otherwise physically ill-treated by Turkish soldiers. These acts are therefore imputable to Turkey under the Convention.

(6)         Conclusion

394.        The Commission, by 12 votes against one, concludes: The testimony of Mr. Pirkettis and of Dr. Hadjikakou suffice to show that prisoners were in a number of cases physically ill-treated by Turkish soldiers. These acts of ill-treatment caused considerable injuries and at least in one case described by Dr. Hadjikakou the death of the victim. By their severity they constitute "inhuman treatment" in the sense of Art. 3 of the Convention, which must be imputed to Turkey.

II.         Withholding of food and medicaments

(1)         Submissions of the Parties

(a)         Applicant Government

395.        The applicant Government alleged that detainees were left without food and water for days and without medical treatment.

(b) Respondent Government

396.        The respondent Government who for the reasons indicated above [584] did not participate in the proceedings on the merits, have not, apart from the statement mentioned above [585], made any submissions with regard to these allegations.

(2)         Relevant Article of the Convention

397.        The applicant Government's above allegations raise issues under Art. 3 of the Convention.

(3)         Evidence obtained

398.        The withholding of drinking water is described by witness Pirkettis. He said that for 2˝ days after his arrest he and his co-detainees were not given anything to drink and the heat in the truck taking them from Messina to Adana vas so terrible that some people passed out [586]. At Adana anybody who asked to be allowed to see the doctor was beaten. "If they said they had a belly ache they would be beaten in the belly and so on" [587]. At Amasya food was very little and very bad [588].

399.        Dr Hadjikakou reported that prisoners who were taken to Turkey were given sea water when they asked for something to drink [589]. In the detainee camps in Cyprus the food supply was very bad [590]. He mentioned the case of a man detained in one of the detention centres and who was hit with the butt of a gun. His shoulder was dislocated but he was not taken to a doctor [591].

400.        Witnesses Soulioti and Odysseos likewise reported that food supply and medical treatment in the detention centres was inadequate or not existing [592].

401.        Written statements submitted by the applicant Government describe withholding of Red Cross and UN food supplies [593], and withholding of, or insufficient supply of food [594], or medicaments generally [595].

(4)         Evaluation of the evidence obtained

402.        The Commission accepts as credible, for the reasons stated above [596], the evidence of the witnesses Pirkettis end Hadjikakou concerning the treatment of prisoners who were deported to Turkey. The testimony of these witnesses establishes that, in a number of cases, such prisoners were, for varying periods, not given sufficient food supply and that, in some cases, adequate medical treatment was not made available.

403.        The Delegates, during the period fixed for the hearing of witnesses, could not investigate all incidents described in the written statements mentioned. However, together with the above oral evidence, these statements constitute strong indications of withholding of food and water, and of medical treatment, in a number of cases.

(5)         Responsibility of  Turkey under the Convention

404.        The conditions of detention of Greek Cypriot prisoners held at Adana and of detainees in the northern area of Cyprus, with the exception of the detention centres Pavlides Garage and Saray prison [597], must be imputed to Turkey under the Convention as all these persons were arrested by and in custody of the Turkish army.

(6)         Conclusion

405.        The Commission, by 12 votes against one, concludes that the withholding of an adequate supply of food and drinking water and of adequate medical treatment, in the cases referred to above and considered as established, constitutes in the conditions described "inhuman treatment" in the .sense of Art. 3 of the Convention which must be imputed to Turkey.

C. Other forms of physical aggression on persons not in detention

I.         Submissions of the Parties

(1)         Applicant Government

406.        Apart from the specific forms of ill-treatment dealt with under A and B of this Chapter, the applicant Government alleged generally that Greek Cypriots in the Turkish occuped area were subjected to inhuman treatment by Turkish soldiers.

(2)         Respondent Government

407.        The respondent Government, who for the reasons stated above [598] did not participate in the proceedings on the merits, have not made any statements with regard to this allegation.

II.         Relevant Article of the Convention

408.        The applicant Government's allegations raise issues under Art. 3 of the Convention.

III.         Observations on the evidence obtained

409.        The oral evidence obtained by the Commission's Delegation with regard to ill-treatment concerned only cases of detained persons.

The applicant Government have submitted several written statements of persons not in detention who were allegedly beaten by Turkish soldiers [599]. However, the Delegates, during the period fixed for the hearing of witnesses, could not investigate the allegations on ill-treatment of persons not in detention.

IV.         Conclusion

410.        The Commission, by 12 votes against one, therefore limits its conclusion to the finding that the written statements submitted by the applicant Government constitute indications of ill-treatment by Turkish soldiers of persons not in detention.

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[518] Particulars I pp. 8-9.

[519] See Part I, para. 23.

[520] Verbatim Record, p. 8.

[521] Addendum to the Verbatim Record, pp. 39, 41.

[522] See above, Chapter 3, Deprivation of Life, para. 320.

[523] Verbatim Record, p. 199.

[524] Verbatim Record, p. 220.

[525] Addendum p. 11.

[526] Verbatim Record, p. 57.

[527] Verbatim Record, p. 34.

[528] Verbatim Record, p. 71.

[529] Verbatim Record, p. 93.

[530] Mr. Soulioti and Mr. Stylianou indicated names of eye-witnesses and victims: Verbatim Record, pp. 19 and 34.

[531] Verbatim Record, pp. 33-34.

[532] Verbatim Record, p. 18.

[533] Verbatim Record, p. 19.

[534] Verbatim Record, p. 21.

[535] Verbatim Record, p. 26.

[536] Statements I, Nos. 11, 12, 13, 15, 16-19, 21-29, 59, 61, 65, 100-108, 110, 111, 113-115, 117, 118, 120-122, Statements II, Nos. 5, 11.

[537] Statements I, Nos. 14, 75, 82, 97,

[538] Statements I, Nos. 1, 15, 20, 24, 41, 45, 60, 70-72, 76, 81, 85, 92, 94, 98, 99, 109, 119; Statements II, Nos. 2, 8, 9, 13, 14.

[539] Verbatim. Record, pp. 58-71.

[540] Statements I, Nos. 12, 15, 17, 18, 21, 103, 108, 111, 113-115, 118, 120 , 121, 122; Statements II, No. 11.

[541] Statements I, Nos. 11, 13 and 118.

[542] Statements I, Nos. 105, 111.

[543] Statements I, Nos. 106, 107, 111.

[544] Statements I, No. 61.

[545] See paras. 77 and 319 above.

[546] Particulars I, p. 16.

[547] Ibid.

[548] Ibid., pp. 18-19.

[549] Ibid., p. 20.

[550] See Part I, pars. 23.

[551] See Part I, para. 40 in fine.

[552] Verbatim Record, pp. 40 et seq.

[553] Verbatim Record, p. 44.

[554] Verbatim Record, p. 45.

[555] Verbatim Record, p. 46.

[556] Verbatim Record, p. 47.

[557] Verbatim Record, p. 47.

[558] Verbatim Record, p. 47.

[559] Verbatim Record, p. 49.

[560] Verbatim Record, p. 49.

[561] Verbatim Record, p. 50.

[562] Verbatim Record, p. 50.

[563] Verbatim Record, pp. 108 and 109.

[564] Verbatim Record, p. 110.

[565] Verbatim Record, p. 108.

[566] Verbatim Record, p. 110-111.

[567] Addendum, p. 38.

[568] Verbatim Record, pp. 8-9.

[569] Verbatim Record, p. 23.

[570] Verbatim Record, p. 29.

[571] Verbatim Record, pp. 93, 94.

[572] Addendum, pp. 5 (Voni camp), 7, 9, 14 (Voni camp) and 15.

[573] Statements I, Nos. 47, 89, 100, 105, 107.

[574] Statements I, No. 48.

[575] Statements 1, No. 75.

[576] Statements I, Nos. 114, 116.

[577] Statements I, No. 12.

[578] Statements I, No. 35.

[579] Verbatim Record, p. 55.

[580] And also Statements I, Nos. 36, 37, 77, 83.

[581] Statements I, No. 92.

[582] Statements I, Nos. 93, 96.

[583] See paras. 77 and 319 above.

[584] See Part I, para. 23.

[585] See Part I, para. 40 in fine.

[586] Verbatim Record, p. 46.

[587] Verbatim Record, p. 47.

[588] Verbatim Record, p. 50.

[589] Verbatim Record, p. 103.

[590] Verbatim Record, p. 108.

[591] Verbatim Record, p. 110.

[592] Verbatim Record, pp. 9 and 95.

[593] Statements I, Nos. 104, 105, 116.

[594] Statements I, Nos. 36, 41, 51, 52, 65, 68, 69, 80, 81, 95.

[595] Statements I. Nos. 92, 95.

[596] See paras. 348-349 above.

[597] See Chapter 2, paras. 308, 309 above.

[598] See Part I, para. 23.

[599] Statements I, Nos. 28, 40, 56 and 100.