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Report of the United Nations Mediator Galo Plaza to the Secretary-General (1965)

Note by the Secretary-General

1. In its resolution of 4 March 1964, the Security Council recommended that the Secretary-General designate, in agreement with the Government of Cyprus, and the Governments of Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom, Mediator, who should use his best endeavours with the representatives of the communities and also the-aforesaid four Governments, for the purpose c promoting a peaceful solution and an agreed settlement of the problem cor fronting Cyprus, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, having in mind the well-being of the people of Cyprus as whole and the preservation of international peace and security.

2. In accordance with his terms of reference, the United Nations Mediate on Cyprus, Mr. Galo Plaza, submitted to the Secretary-General on 26 March 1965 a report on his activities up to that date. This report is transmitted then with to the members of the Security Council for their information.

I. Introduction

Following the death of Ambassador Sakari Tuomioja, you designated me on 16 September 1964, in agreement with the Governments of Cyprus, Greece Turkey and the United Kingdom, to succeed him as the United Nations Mediator on Cyprus. After completing my previous mission as your Special Representative in Cyprus I made a brief visit to Headquarters for consultations with you and took up my new duties in Cyprus on 28 September. The present report covers my activities from that date until 26 March 1965. It contains, in addition to an explanation of the present constitutional and general situation in Cyprus and an account of my mediation efforts, a detailed analysis of the positions of the parties concerned regarding a peaceful solution and an agreed settlement of the problem confronting Cyprus.

II. Function and Activities

3. The function of the Mediator on Cyprus in the terms of the Security Council resolution of 4 March 1964, is to use his best endeavours with the representatives of the Cypriot communities and also with the Governments of Cyprus, Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom, "for the purpose of promoting a peaceful solution and an agreed settlement of the problem confronting Cyprus, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, having in mind the well-being of the people of Cyprus as a whole and the preservation of international peace and security".

4. Mindful of the fact that any lasting solution of the problem confronting Cyprus must be based first and foremost, on the views of the people of Cyprus and their aspirations regarding their future, I decided to establish my Headquarters in Nicosia. It has remained there during the period under review. My activities have required me also to visit the capitals of Greece Turkey and the United Kingdom as well as the Headquarters of the United Nations.

5. During the period under review, I conducted three series of consultations with the parties to the Cyprus problem referred to in the resolution of 4 March 1964. In the first series of consultations, I stayed in Nicosia from 28 September to 7 October and again from 9 to 14 October and I visited Ankara from 7 to 9 October, Athens from 14 to 16 October and London from 26 to 28 October. The main purpose of these first consultations was to ascertain in all its aspects and to the fullest extent possible the position of each of the parties concerned and to seek those areas where compromises could be at- tempted and agreements possibly achieved. I was heartened to note that, while the basic positions adopted by the opposing sides were very far apart, all parties concerned showed willingness to discuss them.

6. Following this series of consultations I returned on 28 October to Headquarters, where on the basis of the positions of the respective parties concerned and of my discussions with them I prepared a set of ideas which, in my view, might lead to the elaboration of a working basis for the further discussion and negotiation of a peaceful solution and an agreed settlement of the Cyprus problem.

7. These ideas and suggestions were discussed with each of the parties concerned and certain aspects of their respective positions further clarified during my second series of consultations, which occupied me first in Nicosia (10-16 November), then in Athens (16-18 November) and Ankara (19-21 November), again in Nicosia (23-26 November) and finally in London (26- 28 November).

8. In the course of this series of consultations, I noted that the positions taken on the opposing sides had considerably hardened since my previous talks with them. This increased rigidity of attitude, it seemed to me, was closely related to the expected approach of the debate of the General Assembly on Cyprus. I gained the impression that the Governments of Cyprus and Turkey, both of which had requested the General Assembly to discuss the Cyprus problem, each expected the Assembly to support its respective stand and would not yield to any substantial compromise until a decision had been taken by the Assembly. I therefore concluded that no great progress could be achieved in my mediation efforts until that time.

9. On 28 November, three days before the opening of the nineteenth session of the General Assembly, I returned to Headquarters where I reported to you orally on the progress of my mission. I informed you that I intended to persist in my efforts to find the grounds for an agreed solution in the context of the Security Council resolution of 4 March 1964, and, in particular, to undertake a third series of consultations after the General Assembly had, if that were its intention, examined the Cyprus problem.

10. In the event, as you know, the General Assembly was not able to function normally, and when in early February it became evident that no debate on the Cyprus problem was likely to take place in the near future, I decided that the time had come to undertake a further round of consultations. From Headquarters, where I had meanwhile had a series of useful discussions with Ministers and other representatives of the Governments concerned, I departed once again on 9 February in order to proceed with my third series of consultations, in Nicosia on 11-17, 20-23 and 25-27 February, in Athens on 1719 and 27-28 February, in Ankara on 23-25 February and in London on 28 February-2 March.

11. Having completed this third series of consultations, I returned to Headquarters on 2 March 1965 to prepare the present report.

12. During all of my periods of consultations in Cyprus I had frequent meetings with Archbishop Makarios, President of the Republic of Cyprus, and his colleagues on the one hand, and with Dr. Kuchuk, Vice-President of the Republic, and his advisers on the other. I also had many discussions with other leaders, both official and unofficial, of the two communities in Cyprus, including members of the Council of Ministers, members of the House of Representatives and of the Greek and Turkish Communal Chambers and leaders of commercial, professional and other societies. With regard to my consultations with the three external Governments which are indicated by the Security Council resolution of 4 March 1964 as being concerned in the problem of Cyprus, I had meetings in Ankara with the President of the Republic of Turkey and also with the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister, the Foreign Minister and other officials both of the Inonu Government and the new Government of Turkey formed on 20 February; in Athens with His Majesty the King of Greece, the Prime Minister, the Foreign Minister and other officials of the Government of Greece; and in London, with the Secretaries of State and the Ministers of State for Foreign Affairs and for Commonwealth Relations and their senior advisers. All the above-mentioned discussions were held in the most frank and friendly manner. I encountered from all the utmost courtesy and good will for which I express my deep gratitude.

13. I must also mention that my endeavours have greatly benefitted from the work done by my predecessor, the late Ambassador Sakari Tuomioja. It may be recalled that he was designated by you as the first United Nations Mediator on Cyprus on 25 March, 1964. After a brief visit to New York for consultation with you, Ambassador Tuomioja established his Headquarters on 2 April in Nicosia where he stayed for a period of two months. During this stay he had frequent meetings with the President and the Vice-President of the Republic of Cyprus and many other leaders, both official and unofficial of the two communities. He also visited Ankara (17-18 April and 4 June), Athens (26-27 April and 3 June) and London (30 April, 4 May and 12 June) for consultations with the Governments of Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom. On 5 July, after further consultations at Headquarters, he went to Geneva, for another series of talks with special representatives appointed by the Governments of Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Shortly after this series of talks was concluded and when he was about to make a new series of visits to Athens, Ankara and Nicosia, he fell on 16 August to the illness from which he never recovered.

14. From the day he assumed his mediation duties until his sudden and untimely illness Ambassador Tuomioja undertook, in addition to his untiring mediation efforts, a thorough study of all aspects of the Cyprus problem. I have made wide use of the results both of his mediation efforts and of his research. which have been of invaluable assistance. I wish to acknowledge search, which have been of invaluable assistance. I wish to acknowledge here my debt of gratitude to him and to pay to his memory the warmest tribute.

 


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